Battle of stalingrad essay questions

M4 Sherman - the main American tank.

It won by numbers. German tanks - Panzers, the German tanks which stormed Europe. Tiger - the most formidable German tank. Lethal, heavy, and almost indestructible.


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  3. our national leaders essay.

Airplanes and air weapons: Bombers - the strategic weapons that struck at the enemy's heart. De Havilland Mosquito - the most versatile and successful allied aircraft. Fallschirmjager - the German paratroopers and their combat operations.

Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943 - World War II DOCUMENTARY

Fieseler Storch - the first true short take-off and landing aircraft. Kamikaze pilots - suicide warfare in World War 2, and its military and cultural rationale. The Manhattan Project - the making of the atomic bomb. Messerschmitt Me - the world's first operational jet fighter. P Mustang - the American long range fighter which defeated the Luftwaffe over Germany. RADAR - the technology which revolutionized air and naval warfare. Stuka dive bomber - the airborne element of the German Blitzkrieg weapons.

Ships and naval weapons: Submarines - they almost defeated Britain, and paralyzed Japan. Also about frogmen and human torpedoes. PT boats, Torpedo boats - The fast night raiders of the sea. Leaders, Generals, Heroes Despite the mobilization of millions, individual people greatly affected the course and outcome of wars. National leaders, Generals and Admirals, aces and heroes, and brilliant scientists. Leaders - a complete list of the national leaders of the countries which participated in World War 2.

Heinrich Himmler - the power-hungry head of the Nazi SS.

The Battle of Stalingrad Essay

The Germans were outnumbered by 4: 1. Yet many Germans mirrored the sentiment that "with a little effort the town should fall in two days. During the summer of the Germans advanced to the suburbs of Stalingrad but failed to take the city itself against a determined defense by the Red Army, despite repeated attacks by the 6 th Army under Friedrich Paulus and part of the 4 th Panzer Army under Ewald von Kleist.

From the very first engagements in the western suburbs of Stalingrad it was clear that the Russian defenders were contesting every inch of the ground.

The Battle of Stalingrad - History Learning Site

On 23 August an airstrike of bombers was launched "killing 40, civilians", but not rousting the defenders. On that evening German troops reached Rynok, northern most suburb of Stalingrad. The Russians were mining and sabotaging buildings as they were ousted, creating death traps for the Germans, than reclaiming the same building after the Germans had detonated all explosives and killed themselves.

The Germans however still pushed on. By 3 September they reached the city center, on the western side of Volga where they encountered stiff resistance from the Soviet 62nd Army under General Chuikov. Stalingrad was now under siege. Russian commander Marshal Zhukov was ordered to attack the north and northwest of Stalingrad. The next day saw one thousand German bombers fly missions over Stalingrad. On September 5, the first Soviet counterattack began and failed. The following morning saw Russian reinforcements arrive and the two sides were now savagely attacking each other.

On November 19, the Soviets launched a counterattack in the form of pincer movements north and south of the city and by the 23 rd they had encircled the 6 th Army and part of the 4 th within Stalingrad. A German attempt to relieve Paulus failed in mid-December. Under orders from Aldof Hitler, Paulus continued to fight on, making possible the eventual escape of the beleaguered German forces from the Caucasus.

On January 31,, Paulus disobeyed Hitler and surrendered, and on February 2 the last of the remainding 91, troops turned themselves over to the Soviets. The Soviets recovered , German and Romanian corpses in and around Stlingrad and the total Axis losses Germans, Romanians, Italians and Hungarians are estimated to have been , dead. For Hitler, Stalingrad had become the main objective of German effort; it was an obsession. Hitler was an amateurish strategist with an unshakeable faith in his own genius, which no facts from the real world could really affect.

The outskirts of Stalingrad were reached in August , with the Germany forces already weakened, but the battle stuck in street and house-to-house fighting. They harbored fears about the strengths of the Russian reserves, and the weakness of the diverging German thrusts, dependent as they were for flank protection on the ill-equipped armies of Hungary, Italy and Romania. His leadership displayed a total lack of any understanding of the command machinery and its function. Colonel-General von Kleist warned Hitler against using the Hungarians, Italians and Romanians as flank protectors for the 6th Army during its struggle for Stalingrad, but the Fuhrer would not listen.

The battle at Stalingrad was a vicious, close-quarter, street fighting. The 6th Army, commanded by Paulus, slogged on street by street, its flank protection entrusted by Hitler to Romanian troops. By the end of October, however, only one tenth of Stalingrad still held out, in the north of the city.

But the balance of strength was changing.

The earlier German superiority had gone. Stalingrad was the first priority for Russian reserves. Sufficient Russian troops were sent into the city to keep the fight going on there. As more Soviet troops were sent into the city, the fighting began to be a block-by-block slogging match, moving back and forth in bloody fighting. Heavy losses for both sides characterized the street fighting. In early November, the winter came.

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The temperatures would soon reach thirty below zero. In the middle of that month, Hitler sent Paulus a message urging one last effort to complete the capture of Stalingrad. By mid-November the Russians were strong enough to undertake a major offensive. They had eleven armies, several mechanized, cavalry and tank corps, tanks, 1, aircraft for the offensive. The were all set to destroy the German forces at Stalingrad Hoyt Generals Zhukov and Chuikov directed the defense of Stalingrad.

Eremenko was also sent to command the Stalingrad front. On November 23 Moscow announced triumphantly that Russian forces had a great victory in the bend of the Don, and that the Germans were now entrapped in Stalingrad. That news convulsed the world… By November 28 the iron ring around Stalingrad had closed. Hitler saw himself as an infallible military genius and blamed the incompetence and lack of willpower of his generals, or their disloyalty to their fuehrer, for all the failures of the German army on its bitter path back to Berlin in the aftermath of Stalingrad.

The Russian attacks fell on weakly held sectors north and south of the city, manned mainly by Romanian forces in the north and by a mixture of further Romanians and units of the 4th Panzer Army in the south. The Russian plan was simply to encircle all of the German forces in the Stalingrad area. The Russians soon broke through the thin defenses, particularly in the north.

The 6th Army at Stalingrad was in serious danger. Decisive action at that time could have saved the situation for the Germans, however.

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If some units were sent north and south to hold the Russians while the bulk of the 6th army withdrew from the ruins of Stalingrad, it would have been saved. When the Russians closed the ring on 23 November, Paulus was cut off. General von Seydlitz-Kurzbach, the most senior of the corps commanders at Stalingrad, urged Paulus to withdraw without delay before escape became impossible. But Paulus, obedient to his Fuehrer, refused to listen to him. From then on the Germans descended into catastrophe slowly.